Modern imaging techniques in biology
- 2 credit course for students in physics or biology in the Autumn semester at the Department of Biological Physics, Eötvös University, Budapest.
Including a visit at an MRI/CT diagnostic center in the end of semester.
An introduction to the world of computed tomographies. Coding and decoding the 3D information on the basis of various principles and methods. Resolution and contrast. Physical background and limits. Working principle and application in medical diagnostics.
- Basic principles of the measurement. Back projection. Attenuation coefficient and the Hounsfield scale of human tissues. Parallel beam, fan beam and ring detector setups. Beam hardening and software correction. Lecture slides.
- Imaging. Mathematical background: Radon transformation, point spread function (PSF), convolution/deconvolution, filter equation in 2D and 1D. Lecture slides.
MRI and fMRI:
- Microscopic and macroscopic magnetization. The Bloch equation. T1 and T2 relaxation times.
- Magnetic resonance. 90° pulse. FID: free induction decay. Effective T2.
- Pulse method for determining T2 and T1. Spin echo. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy.
- Imaging. Selective excitation and read out of a slice.
- Pulse sequences and contrast. Flow in MRI.
- fMRI. BOLD. Echo planar imaging (EPI). Spin echo (SE) and gradient echo (GE) for fast imaging.
PET: positron emission tomographyOnline reading
Sonography: medical ultrasound
BOLD: blood oxygenation level dependent, CT: computer tomography, EPI: echo planar imaging, FID: free induction decay, fMRI: functional magnetic resonance imaging, GE: gradient echo, MRI: magnetic resonance imaging, PET: positron emission tomography, PSF: point spread function, SE: spin echo, SIM: structured illumination microscopy, SPIM: selective plane illumination microscopy.